In case of hyperthyreosis, the endocrine organ produces too much T4 (thyroxine), T3 (triiodothyronine) hormones and due to the increased activity, the thyroid gland enlarges. In less frequent cases, hyperthyroidism may be the result of increased activity of TSH (thyroid hormone regulator). There may be cases when an overactive nodule is located in the gland or when an autoimmune process causes the whole thyroid to function more intensively. The latter case is called the Graves’ disease.
What is the thyroid gland and what is its function?
The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland with a mass of 20 to 40 grams, located at both sides of the trachea and the larynx.
It is characteristic of endocrine glands – such as the thyroid gland – that they do not have an external tube, so its hormones are directly delivered to the circulation, usually works away from the gland. The organ produces the following thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine).
Thyroid hormones increase the heat production of the body and the absorption of glucose from the blood is more rapid. Their other beneficial effect is that carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism are also stimulated. This means that while fat stores break down in order to mobilize them, the free fat content of the plasma increases to meet the energy needs.
Thyroid hormones, beyond the mentioned benefits, are indispensable for normal sexual function and for the proper development of the nervous system and bones.
What are the causes of hyperthyroidism?
Hyperthyroidism appears in most cases as a psychosomatic illness. In addition, certain familial hereditary tendencies play a role in its development. It can also be the cause of the problem if the body is over-burdened for a given period of time.
Hyperthyroidism may be due to thyroid inflammation, thyroid autoimmune disease (Graves’s disease), too much iodine in the body, and overproduction of thyroid gland hormone secretion (pituitary gland).
What symptoms may indicate hyperthyroidism?
- thyroid enlargement, also known as struma
- elevated blood pressure
- fragile hair, hair loss
- sleep disturbances, restlessness
- difficulty in breathing
- quick heartbeat
- premature eyelids, which can even lead to visual impairment in severe cases.
- warm, damp skin
- heavier concentration, irritability
How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?
The symptoms can often occur in themselves without the presence of the disease, it is recommended to visit a specialist and to test the functioning of the thyroid gland.