The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland located on the thyroid cartilage before the gullet. Its physiological function is the production of thyroid hormone, which plays a role in regulating the body’s metabolism, growth, sexual function, and brain function. There are almost no organs whose function will not be influenced by thyroid hormone, its production is vital to life. The thyroid gland function is controlled by the pituitary gland which is under the control of the brain (hypothalamus).
Because of its complexity, thyroid gland diseases are not or late recognized due to the wide variety of symptoms. Diagnosis is a specialist’s job in every case. In our writing, we collected the symptoms of abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Symptoms of thyroid gland dysfunction
1. Something stuck in the throat feeling
The most common form of thyroid disease is the enlargement of the thyroid gland, called the struma, also known as goiter. One of the possible, and at the same time most objectionable, cause of its development is the low iodine consumption. For adults, 150 micrograms of iodine per day is needed for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland.
In addition to the visible signs, other symptoms may also be associated with thyroid disease.
2. Tiredness or insomnia
In case of hypothyroidism, it is common that after 8 to 10 hours of sleep we also get tired and weak out of bed. In the case of thyrotoxicosis, the feeling of daytime fatigue is the opposite of night sleep.
3. Weight Changes
The abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland also affects to the regulation of metabolic activity. In case of hypothyroidism, weight gain may occur and thyrotoxicosis may cause weight loss.
4. Mood swings
Nervousness, depression, or today’s increasingly common symptom, panic disorder can also occur due to dysfunction of the thyroid gland.
5. High cholesterol levels
If the values do not decrease despite the regular exercises and diet, we can not suspect hypothyroidism. Low cholesterol levels may occur with thyrotoxicosis.
6. Menstrual and fertility problems
Stronger, protracted menstruation than before can signal hypothyroidism. The less frequent bleeding, the longer cycle may be thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid problems are often the cause of infertility.
7. Bowel symptoms
In general, constipation may lead to hypothyroidism, while diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome may be the cause of thyrotoxicosis.
8. Hair and skin problems
Thyroid gland diseases may cause more lesions in hair and skin. A common complaint is hair loss, dryness, fracture, dryness of the skin.
9. Neck Strain
Due to thyroid gland enlargement, it exerts pressure on the gullet and the esophagus, causing swelling and breathing difficulties. There may also be periodic hoarseness.
10. Muscle and joint pains
Karpaltunnelsyndrom may also be associated with thyroid gland disease due to the pain of the muscles and joints: the numbness of the pointer and the middle finger at certain intervals.
Laboratory blood tests provide information on the actual functioning of the organ. Determination of the level of TSH and FT3 and FT4 thyroid hormones produced by the pituitary gland and the level of anti TPO, which indicates the thyroid inflammation signify the actual functional status of the organ.
Thyroid ultrasonography can be used to determine its structure, the presence of inflammation, and the presence of tumors. The most commonly recognized lesions can be remedied in most cases by medication.
Depending on the lesion, the doctor may require aspiration cytology, the essence of which is to extract the sample from the thyroid gland with a needle by ultrasound. The resulting sample is placed on a slide and evaluated by microscopic examination. The test does not involve much pain, it can be compared to a needle puncture.