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Thyroid gland disorders – Symptoms and diagnosis modes

Thyroid gland disorders - Symptoms and diagnosis modes

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland located on the thyroid cartilage before the gullet. Its physiological function is the production of thyroid hormone, which plays a role in regulating the body’s metabolism, growth, sexual function, and brain function. There are almost no organs whose function will not be influenced by thyroid hormone, its production is vital to life. The thyroid gland function is controlled by the pituitary gland which is under the control of the brain (hypothalamus).

What is thyroid gland?
What is thyroid gland?

Because of its complexity, thyroid gland diseases are not or late recognized due to the wide variety of symptoms. Diagnosis is a specialist’s job in every case. In our writing, we collected the symptoms of abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland.

Symptoms of thyroid gland dysfunction

1. Something stuck in the throat feeling

The most common form of thyroid disease is the enlargement of the thyroid gland, called the struma, also known as goiter. One of the possible, and at the same time most objectionable, cause of its development is the low iodine consumption. For adults, 150 micrograms of iodine per day is needed for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland.

In addition to the visible signs, other symptoms may also be associated with thyroid disease.

2. Tiredness or insomnia

In case of hypothyroidism, it is common that after 8 to 10 hours of sleep we also get tired and weak out of bed. In the case of thyrotoxicosis, the feeling of daytime fatigue is the opposite of night sleep.

3. Weight Changes

The abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland also affects to the regulation of metabolic activity. In case of hypothyroidism, weight gain may occur and thyrotoxicosis may cause weight loss.

4. Mood swings

Nervousness, depression, or today’s increasingly common symptom, panic disorder can also occur due to dysfunction of the thyroid gland.

5. High cholesterol levels

If the values do not decrease despite the regular exercises and diet, we can not suspect hypothyroidism. Low cholesterol levels may occur with thyrotoxicosis.

6. Menstrual and fertility problems

Stronger, protracted menstruation than before can signal hypothyroidism. The less frequent bleeding, the longer cycle may be thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid problems are often the cause of infertility.

7. Bowel symptoms

In general, constipation may lead to hypothyroidism, while diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome may be the cause of thyrotoxicosis.

8. Hair and skin problems

Thyroid gland diseases may cause more lesions in hair and skin. A common complaint is hair loss, dryness, fracture, dryness of the skin.

9. Neck Strain

Due to thyroid gland enlargement, it exerts pressure on the gullet and the esophagus, causing swelling and breathing difficulties. There may also be periodic hoarseness.

10. Muscle and joint pains

Karpaltunnelsyndrom may also be associated with thyroid gland disease due to the pain of the muscles and joints: the numbness of the pointer and the middle finger at certain intervals.

Diagnostic procedures

Laboratory blood tests provide information on the actual functioning of the organ. Determination of the level of TSH and FT3 and FT4 thyroid hormones produced by the pituitary gland and the level of anti TPO, which indicates the thyroid inflammation signify the actual functional status of the organ.

Thyroid ultrasonography can be used to determine its structure, the presence of inflammation, and the presence of tumors. The most commonly recognized lesions can be remedied in most cases by medication.

Depending on the lesion, the doctor may require aspiration cytology, the essence of which is to extract the sample from the thyroid gland with a needle by ultrasound. The resulting sample is placed on a slide and evaluated by microscopic examination. The test does not involve much pain, it can be compared to a needle puncture.

The imaging procedures (X-ray, MRI and CT) primarily focus on the exclusion of diseases and the extent of thyroid gland enlargement to detect complications.

Thyroid gland removal

Surgery can be an option if you have an overactive thyroid that produces too much hormones (thyroxine), and when it is not possible to treat it with anti-thyroid drugs or radioactive iodine therapy.

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