At least a third of the population suffers from allergy symptoms and their numbers increase by an average of 2-4 percent each year. Knowing the numbers and who are suffering from the illness it is understandable that we pay more attention to the subject.
To understand the causes how allergy develops, we need to know that our immune system produces antibodies to disinfect bacteria, fungi, and viruses in our body. Allergy is an incorrect immune response of the body when it defends against a substance or molecule against which it would be unnecessary. In this case, an inflammatory process takes place and histamine is released in our body that produces allergen-specific IgE.
Causes of allergy
In Europe, the three most common allergic diseases are asthma, rhinitis, and various gastrointestinal disorder. More than 80 million people are registered with various allergic diseases, including various medicines, metals, and skin allergies.
According to the doctors the cause of the disease is primarily due to the inherited gene pool, however, what and to what extent will cause allergic reaction is largely dependent on the environmental effects. In order allergy develops, the body needs to meet the allergen several times.
Symptoms and treatment of allergy, diagnosis methods
Typical symptoms of allergy are sneezing, watery runny nose, itchy eyes, soar throat, skin irritation, urticaria, vomiting, diarrhea. In more severe cases, it may bepurulent and allergic contact dermatitis, or even anaphylactic shock.
It is still doubtfull whether asthma is a syndrome or illness. As the symptoms of asthma – clenched chest pressure, dry cough, seizure-like gasp – can be triggered by a number of factors (physical strain, known allergens, respiratory tract infections or even medicines), it is better to talk about the phenomenon as a syndrome.
Most asthma attacks are indicated by signs of warning (increased breathlessness, wheezing, chest tightness or pain, coughing) which early detection and treatment prevent the seizure from developing completely and further deterioration.
Diagnosis of asthma in the event of an attack is not difficult because of the prolonged exhalation, the whirling, whistling sound issued by the bronchi. During normal breathing function, the test is not easy as the symptoms are very similar to lung emphysema, lymphatic disorder or early congestive heart failure. In addition to allergic tests (blood sampling and skin tests), the physician performs respiratory function tests with a spirometer and a peak flow meter.
Medication treatments that relieve and maintain asthma are used to treatthe diseas. In the case of allergic asthma, the doctor may suggest immunotherapy.
The prevalence of allergic rhinitis varies: the values of individual surveys range from 3 to 25 percent. The differences are due to variation in survey methods. If the survey asks about the symptoms, the number will be higher of people with nose problems. However, if we look at the severity of the disease, we get a much lower rate.
Depending on whether the symptoms occur throughout the year or only in the pollen season, seasonal or intermittent (perpetual) and perennial (persistent) or persistent (persisting) hay fever are distinguished. Symptoms include sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, nasal congestion.
During the diagnosis of hay fever, most often a skin test (Prick test) is performed, with small scratches on the surface of the skin allergenic substances are transmitted into it.
Treatment consists of several stages, including prevention, avoidance and removal of allergens and irritants, relief of symptoms, medication and immunotherapy. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, it is recommended that antihistamines and steroid preparations be taken, and after the allergy season immunotherapy is recommended.
At the beginning of the 21st century, every area of the industry (including the food one) has undergone a major development that has necessarily led to changes. Food production and processing has changed, including the used ingredients that produce synthetic, chemical or even genetically modified products. All of these are unmanageable to the human body.
According to our knowledge, cows’ milk, eggs, seafood and nuts are the main cause of allergic reactions. Symptoms may occur in respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal irritation. However, we must not mix allergy (which has clearly identifiable symptoms) with intolerance that occurs in abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, skin diseases (urticaria, eczema, skin pruritus), respiratory irritations (sneezing, runny nose, cough).
The allergy test from the blood is able to detect the specific antibodies produced by the body against each allergen, in which various panel tests are performed. The skin test (Prick test) also leads to results. There is also a possibility for stress test and exclusion diet to keep a diary of consumed meals.
Depending on the severity of allergy or intolerance, it is recommended to eliminate the foods that cause the symptoms in order to releise or eliminate them. In more severe cases medical treatment is prescribed by doctors.